No, SQL Browser is used when you connect to named instance, not using port.
Also, when browser is enabled you can click "..." button and switch to SQL Browser tab to search for servers on the local network.
Is the TCP/IP protocol enabled and 1433 configured as a static port.
I attached the settings that I used.
So, on a remote server, in TCP/IP Protocol settings IPAll->TCP Port is set to non-standard value, right? Or how it is set?
What about Antivirus/Firewall software on a remote system? It often prevents a connection.
Other tools like SSMS are able to connect?